The inactive ingredients in toothpaste provide stability and esthetics. These ingredients include binders, surfactants, buffering agents, humectants (glycerin and sorbitol), preservatives, sweeteners,flavorings, and dyes.
Humectants are added to retain moisture so that the toothpaste does not dry out.
Binders (Xanthan gum, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) carbomers, carrageenan,
and synthetic cellulose) provide texture and determine how thick the toothpaste is.
Buffers (Trisodium phosphate, sodium citrate and Pyrophosphates) work in the toothpaste to keep the pH constant.
Flavoring and sweeteners – peppermint, saccharin, and
xylitol – none of which promote dental decay.
Surfactants (Sodium lauryl sulfate, poloxamer) create the foaming commonly associated with toothpaste. They aid in the cleaning process by helping to loosen plaque and debris and provide stability for the flavoring system.
Color (titanium dioxide, dyes, pigment, mica) for esthetics.